These Rules were made in an effort to have a commonly agreed upon set of rules for tank battles when the member clubs of RCACN came together.

Are desire was to try to recreate within the design limitation of the Tamiya system a workable set of rules with as much historical influence as practically possible. We have been conducting scientific testing on the Tamiya battle unit to see what the limits were. This included scale speed test of all 1/15 and 1/16 models available, hooking the Tamiya electronic system up to electronic test equipment, and testing these theories in battles. The fruit of all this work is what you see here. 1/16 - 1/15 Scale Battle Rules using Tamiya Battle Unit

When you read through these rules you will note several rules relating to scale. The reason behind these rules was obviously are desire to make a battlefield look as scale as practically possible for the enjoyment of the participants and observers.

From our desire to keep the battlefield as scale looking as possible, we limited items on the battlefield to 1/16 and 1/15 scale (note: this includes 120mm scale). When these 2 scales are side by side and up-close you can see the difference in sizes because of the scale difference. But when they are out on the battlefield the difference in size is not that noticeable. Any greater difference in scale such as 1/18 scale is noticeable even from a distance. However we have recognized the current lack of support vehicles (non-tank) available. As a result we have allowed a temporary exemption to allow 1/18 scale support vehicles and military equipment until such items are more readily available.

The scale rule also applies to the speed that tanks and vehicles can go. It does little to aid in historical and scale appearance to see a Tiger I speedily outrun a Sherman M4A3 that historically was faster. Maximum sustained road speed was chosen, as it was the common historical speed that we could practically achieve without major modifications to all tanks.

The tank setting of Heavy, Medium, and Light were done as close to historical ratings as possible. However in the Tamiya Battle Unit design a hit with any of these settings has the same effect on the tank being hit. As a result of this and the rate of fire equaling the amount of hits a tank can take based on the setting in the Tamiya system in effect renders all tank levels virtually the same. This is not historically correct but this design makes for more even competition between different types of tanks. In the future electronic combat systems may be developed to replicate historical accuracy but the Tamiya Battle Unit is the best system currently available.

These rules are not set in stone. They will be up for review and modification every 12 months so any new knowledge, technology or ideas can be incorporated.

1/16 1- /15 Scale Battle Rules using Tamiya Battle Unit

Through declaration of these rules, RCACN intends to establish uniform standards for the engagement of radio controlled model tanks utilizing similarly equipped Tamiya electronic battle units for its member clubs. Further, RCACN intends to create incentives for competitive battles, to refine tactics relevant to RC tank battles consistent with history, and to enhance the realism and enjoyment to all participants and observers to these events for its member clubs.

1.RCACN Radio Control Armor Club Network, the network, and its current member clubs who gather and make decisions through its rules and procedures to regulate and promote scale armored combat in it's member sponsored events.
2."Judge" one of threee so designated individuals to govern over the execution and enforcement of these rules in regards to the procedures and policies of battles/campaigns. They are the permanent decision body during battles/campaigns on issues not previously decided. Judges are the final authority for all non-battlefield decisions.
3."Referee" so designated individual who enforces and executes the rules and policies during specific battles. The referee is the sole decider of "Battlefield" decisions and their decisions are final. Their shall be only 1 referee per battle. However, more than 1 referee may be appointed so as to allow a rotation between battles. If the battlefield is to large or there are to many participants for the 1 referee to effectively govern, "Monitors" may be appointed to assist the referee.
4."Monitor assistants" to observe and point out rules violations to the refeee. Monitors cannot make battlefield decisions.
5."Battlefield decisions" the presiding referee's decisions that are made during battles once the action has commenced regarding the enforcement of these written rules or the rules defined by the judges. The referee's " battlefield decisions" can or maay NOT be challenged.
6."Campaigns" the event comprising of staged battles. The winning side, with remaining teams at the end of the battles, is the victor of the campaign.
7."Battle Scenario" an historical or conceived combat action between opposed forces. Scenarios may be panned before the event or adlibbed during the even. The hosting club sets the scenarios. The √Battle Scenario√ will be explained to all participants before the battle.
8."Battles" heats or rounds used in determining victors for the campaign by eliminating the opposing teams or meeting an objective set in the battle scenario.
9."Teams" must be historically opposed forces. i.e.. Allied & Axis. The battle scenario for that battle will determine the number of fighting vehicles on each side.
10."Shall" a word used to describe an instruction, guideline, or rule that must be adhered to.
11."Should" a word used to describe an instruction, guideline, or rule that is recommended but not mandatory to follow.
12."TBU" "Tank Battle Unit" (Tamiya part number #53447) or GFS "Gun Fire Simulator"

Judges, referees and monitors:
1.The club hosting the battle/ campaign will appoint the judges, referees, and monitors for that battle/campaign. In fairness when possible, the judges should be from different clubs.
2.If there is a question regarding these rules the 3 person judge's panel will come to a majority opinion.
3.Judges will make all decisions regarding the rules and regulations of the battles/campaigns that have not been covered in this set of rules during campaign games.
4.The judge's decisions are final and no further challenges or appeals can be made.

Team classification:
1.Teams shall be classified by historically opposed forces. i.e.. Axis vs Allied unless an optional Non-Historical Battle is chosen. (Note: In history some forces used the captured tanks of an enemy. This is allowed in RCACN Historical Battles, if there is historical evidence of such usage.)
2.Teams can be made up of members from different clubs, all from the same club, guests or visitors and may change from battle to battle as long as they represent historically opposed forces. (Except: Best Historical Team/Platoon Competition - when the teams/platoons should not change, and optional Non-Historical Team Competition)
3.Battles should consist of opposing teams with an equal number of units, unless specified by the battle scenario.
4.Teams may use any combination of: Heavy, Medium, or Light they wish unless they have been specified by the battle scenario.
5.Team size for competition "Best Team/Platoon" elimination scenario is 4 combat vehicles. The "Best Team/Platoon" is a competition to test individual skills and the team's ability to effectively fight as a team.
During the "Best Team/Platoon" competition the members of the teams should remain the same till the end and the winning team is determined.
6."Historical Competition, Grand Finale Battle" - This is a competition battle of all Axis vs Allied available forces. This is intended as a grand battle of large forces. Opposing forces are not limited in size as long as they have exactly the same number of combatants and the battlefield can handle forces of that size.
(Note: Individuals that were not able to participate in the "Historical Best Team/Platoon" because of not being able to field the required force of 4, should be given priority in participating in the "Historical Competition, Grand Finale Battle".)

Battleground classification:
1.The "grounds"" and the "battlefield" will always be determined by the hosting club. The battlefield should have a consistent theme such as North Africa, France, Italy, Russia, etc. or any combination of the proceeding areas of conflict.

Scale requirements for the battle / battlefield:
1.All armored fighting vehicles and antitank guns equipped with a (TBU or RCACN certified- Tamiya compatible battle systems) shall be of 1/15 to 1/16 scale.
Note-1:1/15 to 1/16 includes these common scales; 1/15, 120mm, 1/16
Note-2:"RCACN certified - Tamiya compatible battle systems" are defined as battle systems that have been tested by RCACN to closely match the actual performance characteristics of the Tamiya Battle System and has been approved through the voting system by RCACN
Note-3:Judges may make a temporary allowance for 1/18 scale non- tank battle unit equipped items until 15-16 scale versions are readily available.
2.Buildings, structures, and terrain features should give the appearance of 1/15 to 1/16 scale.
(Note: It is not required that all these items be exactly 1/15 to 1/16 in scale but that they complement the scale look of the battlefield. The judges will have the final decision if an item is complementary to the scale battlefield or detracts from the appearance of a scale battlefield)
3.The only exemption to the scale rules (if allowed by the judges) is 1/18 scale infantry and non-TBU equipped vehicles as diorama enhancements.
(Note: This is intended to be only a temporary exemption until more 1/15 to 1/16 items become available)

Tank and armored vehicle classification:
1.Tanks and armored vehicles shall be classified by armor protection as per the guide in appendix - A.
2.All other tanks, armored vehicles, variations, and personally modified tanks not covered in appendix - A must be specially assigned their classification by the judges during inspection check-in.
3.All tanks and armored vehicles will have to be verified for speed checks by the judges.
i.e... They cannot go faster than the scale max road speed as listed in appendix - B.
Note: the speed requirement may be waved for novice battles only. This is intended for new people that have not had the opportunity to modify their vehicle.
4.Any tank or vehicle with a speed faster than scale maximum road speed shall be subject to a penalty or even elimination depending on the judges decision. If allowed to be in a battle the judges shall assign penalty hits prior to the start of battle. The number of penalty hits should be relative to the degree of excess in speed and TBU setting (H, M, L) as determined by the judges in an effort to bring the speed to scale. Refer to penalty section.

Tamiya Battle Unit Installation:
1.The TBU emitter shall be mounted in a manner so as to emit in the same direction as the main gun barrel. Recommended installation: The LED emitter should be mounted in the standard Tamiya LED holder and clipped to the barrel or mounted in the barrel or in the mantlet. The LED emitter shall be mounted in a receptacle with the following dimensions derived from the standard Tamiya LED holder.
Maximum bore/inside diameter is 6 mm (0.236 inches) and a minimum depth to LED crown of 9 mm (0.354 inches).
2.The TBU receiver shall be mounted in a manner as to allow hits from 360 degrees in a horizontal plane. The only exemptions allowed are listed in paragraph 4 & 5.
Recommended installation - similar to Tamiya instructions: in the commander's hatch or the gunner's hatch.
3.The orientation of the TBU receiver shall be as per Tamiya instructions: with the LEDs at a 45 degree angle to the direction of the main gun barrel.
4.The model as built from the manufacturer may have an item/s that may partially block reception of the receiver if installed as per recommended Tamiya instructions. The commander's hatch on some tanks may not lay down enough and machine-guns may partially block the TBU receiver. Also most included commander figures will to some degree block the receiver if used. As a result, hatches used for the TBU or commander figure shall be opened to their maximum ability as per manufactured design. Hatches opened to their maximum ability and machine-guns installed as per manufacturer shall not constitute as a violation of blocking the receiver if the receiver is installed as per Tamiya instructions to it's maximum height. However as the commander figure was intended to be removed by Tamiya to install the TBU in the commander's hatch, figures will be considered as signal blockers.
5.Optional IFA rule: During W.W.II some tanks/assault guns were developed with so much frontal armor that readily available ammunition of the time could not penetrate it. These tanks/assault guns may be considered as having IFA (Invulnerable Frontal Armor). If the optional "IFA" rule is used the receiver may be mounted in such a manner so as to have its frontal 90 degree area blocked from receiving a hit. The following tanks/assault guns may be considered as having IFA: German - Jagdtiger, Ferdinand/Elefant.
6.The judges will inspect the installation of the TBU during the inspection period. The following criteria are to be inspected; the receiver shall be shot until it registers a kill.
(This is to verify that the TBU system is functioning properly and the classification is set accordingly with Appendix-A.)
Also the receiver shall be shot from a distance of 65 feet / 20 meters on one or more of the following angles compared to the aiming of the main gun of the receiving unit; 0, 90, 180, 270 degrees.
(This is to verify that the unit can register a hit from distance to a vulnerable angle).

1.Mines may be used in some of the battle scenarios.
2.Mines may be a mechanical device or as simple as a small disc indicator.
3.A mine may produce an electronic hit or the referee may impose damage if he sees a vehicle contact a mine. Damage guide: soft skin vehicles maybe destroyed, tanks may have their tracks blown off and become a pillbox.
4.If mines are used, the referee shall explain all details on how the mine will work to all participants but shall not revel their location.
5.Whatever type of mine used it shall not cause physical damage to the contacting vehicle.

Battle Rules:
1.All tanks and battling items shall be checked in to the judges for inspection prior to being allowed on the battlefield for that campaign so that they are verified to comply with these Battle Rules.
2.All tanks prior to commencement of a battle or after a battle may be subject to a judges re-inspection if the referee or a judge thinks the vehicle may violate these rules.
3.Before combat, the referee will instruct all operators to turn off their tanks and transmitters. Then instruct all operators to ensure their TBU is seated correctly. Then the referee will instruct the operators to turn on their tanks. Once the tanks have been turned on, no one can touch their tanks until cleared by the referee. Then the referee will instruct the operators to turn on their transmitters.
4.Once combat has started - at no time will a transmitter be turned off until the tank it is controlling is killed. Once a transmitter has been turned off it cannot be turned on again even if the tank was not killed.
5.Once a tank has been destroyed and rendered inoperative by their TBU, their radio transmitter shall (must) be turned off.
[Option: Referee may allow transmitters to be left on if local radio interference causes killed tank control problems (runaway tank). But operator must step away from transmitter.]
Also the operator is now considered to be KIA (Killed in Action). He will have no further communication with other team members except to acknowledge that he is "KIA". This mute communication will extend only to members of his team who are still active in the battle.
6.The referee may place an indicator on or beside a tank or vehicle that has been destroyed to help distinguish them from those still active in the battle. The use of indicators and type of indicator used is up to the hosting club.
7.During battle no one including the referee shall intervene to aid tanks or items on the battlefield unless it posses a danger to other tanks or hi-value items on the field or unless imposing a penalty as per these rules. i.e...
In emergencies the Referee or others list in paragraph 12 can intervene if there is cross radio interference and the tank is running out of control or assigning a penalty hit and cannot intervene if batteries die or track comes off. If a tank is rescued it is considered destroyed for that battle and removed from the battlefield or power turned of on the tank.
8.To verify that no combatants have experienced glitches in their battle systems preventing their death, the referee will when combat is over and before the victors have turned off their tanks or transmitters; shoot each victorious combatant and verify that they can die within their established parameters. If a victor was found to have a non-dying glitch, the battle may be re-fought. If found during competition battles, the battle shall be considered null and void and will be re-fought.
9.There shall be no intentional contact with tanks from opposing teams.
10.The battle will last until one team is completely eliminated or unable to fight or when the set conditions of the battle scenario have been meet.
11.Under no circumstances except as listed in paragraph 12 can a player enter the battlefield once a battle has begun.
12.During non-competition battles with no objection from the judges or the referee a photographer or videographer may be allowed on the battlefield as long as they stay out of they way of combat.
13.Any violation of these rules during battle is grounds for a penalty as determined by the referee per these rules.

Best Historical Team/Platoon Rules:
1.Team/Platoon composition is as previously state in these rules.
2.This will be an elimination event held in rounds.
3.If in any round there are not an even number of historical opponents a team/platoon may have to fight successively until all teams of the opposing side have fought on that round. i.e.. If there is 4 Allied platoons and 2 Axis platoons, the Axis platoons would have to fight 2 Allied platoons each in that round.
4.Teams/platoons that have not lost a battle in that respective round will advance to the next round.
5.Each successive round of battles will eliminate teams from either side until one side has been completely eliminated.
6.Once an opposing side has been eliminated (Allied or Axis) if there is more than (1) team/platoon remaining on the victorious side they will continue combat until only (1) team/platoon remains undefeated.
7.The (1) team/platoon remaining undefeated throughout this elimination event will receive the title
" Best Team/Platoon" for that campaign/Battle Day

------------------------------------------------------------ [To be reviewed] ------------------------------------------------------------

1.A warning could be issued that any violation of the same would result in a penalty imposed.
2.The offending tank may be subjected to electronic hits at the referee's discretion.
3.The offending tank could be disqualified from a Battle or from the entire War.
4.The offending tank may be immobilized and only subject to firing and become a pillbox.

If vehicles that are in excess of specified speed limits listed in appendix B are allowed on the battlefield the following is a suggested guide for penalty hits.

Setting Tested Scale Speeds over limit
 2-5 mph5-10 mph10-15 mph
Heavy1 hit2 hits3 hits
Medium1 hit2 hits2 hits
Light1 hit1 hit1 hit

Note: If the tested scale speed is less than 2 mph over the listed limit the vehicle should be given a reprieve from penalty hits.

Appendix A

This appendix is a guide for participants and judges to classify tank settings as per these rules.

1.Tanks are classified as: Heavy, Medium, or Light based on their average effective armor as an overall representation of their ability to resist battle damage.
2.These classifications are based on 1944-45 values of what constitutes a Heavy, Medium, and Light tank. A tank's armor classed as a Medium in 1940-41 may only be classed as Light by 1944-45 standards.
3.The armor values listed are front and side armor from the listed references. The front and side values are used as they best represent the most important armor for the battles we are recreating.
4.An armor value of 50@60 represents 50mm of thickness at an angle of 60 degrees from horizontal.
5.Due to tanks having different designs, some features are not common to all. For these features an ' n/a' is used to represent 'not applicable'.
6.The term effective thickness represent the distance an incoming round on a horizontal trajectory would have to pass through to penetrate the armor at the given armor angel.
7.The following cosine correction formula was used to determine the effective armor -
Example: 50@60 - First find the armor angle of deviation from perpendicular (90 degrees) so 90 - 60 = 30.
Then take the armor thickness and divide it by the cosine of the angle deviation - 50 divided by (30 cosine) = 57.7mm.
8.In some cases armor varied in thickness and angle for a given position so an average was used for the thicknesses and angles listed.
9.Some angle are complex shapes and cannot easily be calculated such as round surfaces 'Rnd'. So no cosine correction was applied...
10.The range of average effective armor is based on historical classification of key tanks for the 1944-45 period.
Class Width/Thickness
Heavy 80mm or more
Medium 42 to 79.999mm
Light 5 to 41.999mm

Augmented armor:
1.A factory or field augmentation of armor thickness. Must have a historical documented basis to be counted. The Sherman was the most common to receive extra armor.
2.Sandbags and track links will not count for added protection because in ballistics tests they were found to act as shot traps on angled hits negating any other benefits they had with the following exception: sandbags and track links did provide some added protection against HEAT/shaped charge warheads used on Bazookas, Panzerfaust, and Panzerschreck.
3.Schurzen or side skirt armor used by the Germans did provided added protection with out the negative shot trap effect. They were also found to be extremely effective against HEAT/shaped warheads and can be seen incorporated into modern tank designs today.
4.A tank may receive enough additional armor that it may have its classification upgraded to the next level if its average effective armor reaches that level.

1.Some references were found to have errors - If '*' is by an item when the primary reference was found to conflict with other references. The correct information displayed by the '*' will be the correct information.
*1.The M4A3E8 (76) depicted was from photographs of Col. Creighton Abrams's tank Thunderbolt VII. It had 1-inch additional plate fully covering the front superstructure, half of the turret side, and half the side superstructure. Scale size for 1 inch is 1/16 of an inch. If the armor coverage is any less than described it will be insufficient to make heavy class. Refer to photos if there is a question.
*2.The M4A3E8 (76) armor values listed on http://www.onwar.com was totally incorrect and values were taken from M4A3 (75) & M4A2 (76) from the same source. The Onwar values listed are for the M4A3E2.
*3.The M5A1 'Stuart' as listed at Onwar shows no side upper hull/ superstructure. This is taken as an error as the design is very close to the M3 'Stuart' and clearly shows a side upper hull/superstructure.
*4The T-70 Model 1943 as listed at Onwar shows no side upper hull/superstructure. This is taken as an error as the drawings for the T-70 clearly shows a side upper hull/superstructure. The value of side hull was used.

Appendix B

This appendix is a guide for participants and judges to verify tank/vehicle allowable speeds as per these rules.
1.Tanks or vehicles maximum capable speed shall be the 1/16 scale maximum road speed listed for that particular type/model of tanks or vehicle.
2.The maximum road speeds listed are from the listed references.
3.The values used for maximum road speed are the maximum sustained road speeds on level ground as found in the references for each vehicle.

The method of speed verification:
1.A strait course with a starting point then 25 feet and a stopping point over the flattest available area shall be used.
2.Make sure you use fully charged batteries. Charged within the last 24 hours for the test.
3.The tank/vehicle shall have a running start so as to achieve maximum speed prior to the start of the course and align its direction with the course. When the tank/vehicle passes the start point a stopwatch shall start.
4.During the 25 foot run the speed should not be change and as little steering as possible used to stay on the course.
5.When the tank/vehicle reaches the end of the 25-foot course the stopwatch shall be stopped. The tank/vehicle should pass the end of the 25-foot course before starting to slow down.
6.The tank/vehicle shall run the same course again in the opposite direction. Both run times shall be added and then divided by 2. This will compensate for any grade in the course their may have been.
7.The average run time of the test tank/vehicle shall be compared to the value listed for that particular type/model in this appendix chart.
8.If the time recorded for the test matches the time listed in the table or is grater then the tank/vehicle has meet it's speed requirement.
9.If the time recorded for the test is less than the listed in the table then the judges shall determine if it is allowed on the field as per these rules.
10.If a tank or vehicle has a grate deal of field mod. added armor a max speed penalty may be assigned by the judge to compensate for the added weight.

The formula used to determine the scale speed course time -

25 / ( ( ( x / 16 ) 5280 ) / 3600 ) = [x is actual max sustained road speed]

1.Some references were found to have errors. If '*' is by an item when the primary reference was found to conflict with other references. The correct information displayed by the '*' will be the correct information.

A. http://www.onwar.com
B. http://www.wwiivehicles.com
C. http://www.afvdb.50megs.com
D.The American Arsenal by Ian V. Hogg - Greenhill Military Paperback
E.Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two by Peter Chamberlain & Hilary Doyle With Technical Editor Thomas L. Jentz - Arms & Armor
F.Osprey books.

Notes(*): The Tiger I from Tamiya goes way faster than scale speed and is hard to control. Several gear reduction methods have been found to bring it's speed to scale and have made it much more controllable. The Pershing and Sherman as built from Tamiya also do not meet the scale speed requirement but should only require switching the current electronic motors to Zagi's.

Changes Implemented;
Review-1 = Yes
Review-2 = Yes
Review-3 = No changes proposed
Review-4 = No changes proposed
Review-5 = Yes
Review-6 = Yes
Review-7 = Yes
Review-8 = Yes
Review-9 = Yes
Review-10 = Yes
Review-11 = Yes
Review-12 = Yes
Review-13 = {Penalties} to be reviewed
Review-14 = {Appendix-A} to be reviewed
Review-15 = {Appendix-B} to be reviewed
New Issues:
Review-16 = {MF Requirements} under discussion
Review-17 =
Review-18 =
Review-? =
Review-? =
Review-? =

 Ratified: ? 200?
 Valid till: ? 200?

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